Monday, May 27, 2024

What are values? Definitions and Sources

Sources of values ​​include family, group, society, school, friends or mates, relatives, institutions, religion, books etc.

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The term “value” originates from the Latin word “valere,” which means “to be strong” or “to be of worth.” Over time, this word evolved in meaning to refer to the worth, significance, or importance of something. The concept of “value” has further developed in various contexts to encompass economic, social, and philosophical aspects, referring to the relative worth of goods, ideas, or principles.

What are values?

Here are ten examples of values:

  1. Honesty: Being truthful and sincere in your actions and words.
  2. Respect: Treating others with consideration and kindness.
  3. Responsibility: Being accountable for your actions and obligations.
  4. Integrity: Upholding strong moral and ethical principles.
  5. Empathy: Understanding and sharing the feelings of others.
  6. Equality: Treating everyone fairly and without discrimination.
  7. Courage: Facing challenges and difficulties with bravery.
  8. Compassion: Showing care and concern for others’ well-being.
  9. Perseverance: Persisting and working hard despite obstacles.
  10. Open-mindedness: Being receptive to new ideas and diverse perspectives.

These examples demonstrate various values that guide individuals in their interactions, decisions, and behaviors.

Some Definitions of Values

Some definitions of values ​​are mentioned below:

  • A sense of value is something worth hoarding, more valuable than what one knows, is familiar with, or has in one’s possession.
  • The principles and standards that govern human behavior are called values.
  • Values ​​are relatively permanent beliefs composed of a number of attitudes.
  • Sociologist David Popenoe (David Popenoe) said, “Good-bad, right-wrong, desirable-undesirable society’s idea, its name is values.”
  • Sociologist F. E. Spencer says, “Values ​​are criteria used to judge the goodness or badness of behavior and to choose between possible goals.”
  • Sociologist F. E. According to Merrill (FE Merril), “Social values ​​are the nature or type of beliefs that people consider important to preserve group welfare.”

And the education through which the norms, customs, ideals etc. are developed in the society is the value education. Values ​​are the foundation of society and state. It is the social measure of human behavior. It plays a role as one of the criteria of a country’s society, state, economic and political excellence.

A child’s life has a multifaceted development since birth. Signs of this development are manifested in the person’s behavior. In the behaviorist view, as the child ages, his innate behavior changes based on experience; This changed new behavior is called acquired behavior. These acquired behaviors create, some acquired bio-psychological tendencies inherent in the child or person.

For example: How many habits children form in the early stages of development. At a later stage, permanent affections develop based on experiences or events. Later on, sentiments, attitudes, etc., develop into biological psychological tendencies. In adulthood, the experience of these bio-psychological tendencies leads to adjustment. As a result of such coordination, the all-powerful bio-psychic organization that develops can control all behavior of the individual. This bio-psychological organization is values.

What is the source of values?

Sources of values ​​include family, group, society, school, friends or mates, relatives, institutions, religion, books etc.

“A value is a criterion used to judge the good or bad of behavior and to choose between possible goals” – F. E. spencer
“A value is a criterion used to judge the good or bad of behavior and to choose between possible goals” – F. E. spencer

“A value is a criterion used to judge the good or bad of behavior and to choose between possible goals” – F. E. spencer

e is a criterion used to judge the good or bad of behavior and to choose between possible goals” – F. E. spencer

Types of values

It is normal to have different values ​​or standards of conduct at different stages of life. Thus, the value of an individual’s life may take different forms depending on the context of his behavior.

Here it is important to remember that there are two sides to every value in life. One is its manifest aspect, which can be measured in behavioral values. The other is its sincere side, which cannot be immediately measured. This sincere aspect of values ​​has to be observed in various situations in life.

Many thinkers feel that since education is an ideal social process, the sole responsibility should be to try to develop this sincere aspect of values.

Educationists believe that education should try to develop at least six types of values ​​in individuals; These are:

  • Economic Value
  • Social Value,
  • Physical and Recreational Value (Physical and Recreational Value),
  • Moral Value
  • Aesthetic Value,
  • Intellectual Value
  • Religious values.

Economic values

In general, objects that can be exchanged for money are considered to have monetary value. Analyzing the matter, it can be seen that objects which have the capacity to provide pleasure are considered to have monetary value. In other words, money has monetary value because it is associated with material goods or enjoyment of life. There is a need to combine pleasure with the material world. And this addition requires proper training.

Thus through planned education economic values ​​can be awakened in individual life by establishing the connection of personal enjoyment with material enjoyment. Economic values ​​are expressed through the conduct of financial affairs of individuals.

Social values

Healthy social life of human beings depends on establishing proper interpersonal relationships. A person who is able to relate well with other people in the society is fit for a healthy social life.

Psychologists believe that appropriate social relationships with appropriate individuals need to be determined through a person’s sincere values. For example, the emotional satisfaction of the relationship we mean by friendship is based on a value towards the concept of the individual. This is called the value of friendship. Likewise, love and affection are social values.

Physical and recreational values

Among the various needs in human life, biological and psychological needs are important. These biological and psychological needs must be satisfied in the individual life in such a way that the personality develops in an ideal way and finally the individual can have an ideal life. For this the person needs proper training.

Moral values

A person freely chooses his career path during his life. Everyone has to decide what to do and what not to do according to the situation. The success or failure of a person’s life depends on this decision-making. 

Moreover, the value of a person’s life is determined by the accuracy of this decision.

The kind of values ​​through which these good and bad, right and wrong can be judged are called moral values.

By inculcating moral values, individuals are able to maintain behavioral consistency in various spheres of life. With the increase in life experience, a person’s sense of right and wrong or right and wrong is awakened in him. As the individual’s field of experience expands, these values ​​become concentrated and stable. Again the process of gaining experience is education.

Values ​​of beauty enjoyment

A special kind of emotional experience is the enjoyment of beauty. In order to gain this experience, one needs to have prior experience and to instill positive feelings in the individual.

Aesthetic perception is possible only when we perceive an object, event or situation in a singular way combined with prior experience and apply our personal feelings to it. Seeing this in the material world is indicative of a developed personality. And because of this, the mental state that is created is called the value of enjoying beauty.

intellectual values

In general, the process of acquiring knowledge of a person is considered as intellectual development. But the scope of human knowledge is so wide and constantly changing that it is not possible to achieve completeness in the acquisition of knowledge in any given time. Therefore, the real significance of intellectual development in individual life is to awaken the spirit of truth-seeking.

That is, only when a person is able to search for the real truth can the intellectual development of a person’s life be achieved. Philosophers say, when a person gets pleasure in the content of knowledge, intellectual value will be awakened in him. And the person will be engaged in the search for truth or true knowledge only when intellectual values ​​are awakened in him. Through intellectual development, individuals are encouraged to pursue life-long knowledge.

Religious values

The influence of religion on human behavior is extensive. When an object can be considered great by being associated with the Almighty or divine power, then it is called a religious experience or a spiritual experience. The scope of such experience is vast and generous.

Such ability to experience the material world is considered a characteristic of the individual. Helping in the character development of the individual, is one of the main aims of school education.

Character development is possible only when students are able to regulate their behavior in a coherent manner by some basic universal beliefs. Therefore, one of the efforts of the school will be to inculcate religious or spiritual values ​​in the individual. That is why great importance is given to the development of religious or spiritual values ​​(Spiritual Experience) in the field of education.


The development of values ​​in personal life is always based on experience. Real values ​​are developed through gradual transition from material experience to personal experience. Through the recycling of experiences, a person associates with them and transforms them into personal experiences.


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