Thursday, May 16, 2024

What are Administration and Management? Concept, Scop and Differences between the Two

Distinguishing between the terms 'administration' and 'management' is a difficult task. In fact, a manager does the same job that an administrator does. But managers have tried to distinguish between the two theoretically.

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It is the job of administration to formulate policies for running an organization and it is the responsibility of management to look after and monitor whether those policies are properly implemented. Administration in a well-thought-out way, planning all the programs of the organization, appointing and directing staff, coordinating the human and material resources and materials of the organization and ensuring the smooth solution of all tasks according to the plan, the management directly supports the administration in this.

Concept of administration

The term administration is very old. Ever since humans learned to live in groups, the need for administration has been observed. Wherever a party or organization exists, the presence of administration can be seen. The English equivalent of administration is Administration. Looking at the etymological meaning of the word ministration in isolation from Ad, we find that it means ‘to attend to’ or ‘to care for’. In this sense we can call administration as service work or process. It refers to working to achieve the goals or objectives of an institution or organization. On the other hand, if the meaning of the word Bengali administration is pro + rule. Here the word rule implies punishment. According to Professor Newman, “Administration is the leadership of a group of people in order to achieve a common goal. To direct and control”. On the other hand, according to Simon, “Management is the use of human and material resources to achieve organizational objectives”. Although administration involves questions of rules, principles and discipline, nevertheless 

The service aspect of administration in the modern sense is gaining prominence. Organization is only purposeful. Every organization is moving towards some specific goal. Administration is the well-controlled and well-managed system adopted to achieve goals or objectives. 

Concept of management

Many believe that the English word Management is derived from the Italian word Maneggiare. Which means “To train up the horse”- to manage the horse. According to many, it is derived from the French word “Manager I Manage”. Which means managing (To direct the household) and demonstration work (An act of guiding or leading) respectively. Generally speaking no specific 

Management is the technique of getting others to do the work needed to achieve goals. The concept of management originates from business management methods of business society. According to Newman, “Management is an activity that carries out activities according to policies and plans adopted by the administration”. Management is a scientific process or technique in which all types of manpower and resources are used collectively to achieve the goals.

Henry Fell is a proponent of management principles
Henry Fell is a proponent of management principles

Scope of administration

The overall process of implementing all the programs aimed at achieving the objectives of an organization, determining policies and achieving the desired goals through proper utilization of necessary resources is called administration.

Administration ensures planning of all the programs of the organization in a well-thought-out way, recruitment and direction of staff, coordination between human and material resources and material of the organization and smooth solution of all the work according to the plan. Lutheran believed that administration is a general science of organization and management.

POSDCORB

Luther Gulick used the term “POSDCORB” to describe and explain the activities of all administrative organizations especially their management activities. The full form of Luther Gulick POSDCORB is—

  • P = Planning
  • O = Organization
  • S = Staffing
  • D = Directing
  • Co = Coordination
  • R = Reporting
  • B = Budgeting

Range of management

Management is a scientific human social process. Management revolves around objectives. Relating to the management organization or organization. The purpose of management is closely related to the purpose of the particular organization or organization. The objective of any business organization is to earn maximum profit. Organizations may have various objectives associated with this objective. Proper implementation of these subsidiary objectives paves the way for the organization to achieve its core objectives. According to Breck, “Management is concerned with seeing that the job gets done”. That is, it is the job of management to verify whether the work is done efficiently”.

Difference Between Administration and Management

The term administration is ancient. Management is quite new in that field. The concept of management originated after the industrial revolution. On the other hand, since ancient times, the functions of running the state, church and army were called administration. It is the responsibility of management to look after and supervise whether the policies formulated and adopted by the administrator of an organization are properly implemented. Nowadays the word management is used more than the word administration. Actually management and administration are used almost synonymously. Administration is the policy making level and management is the implementation level. For this reason, many people call the administration as the brain and management as the eyes of the organization. Again, many academics find the term management appropriate as opposed to administration as it smells of feudalism and autocracy in the concept of administration.

Distinguishing between the terms ‘administration’ and ‘management’ is a difficult task. In fact, a manager does the same job that an administrator does. But managers have tried to distinguish between the two theoretically. The differences are:

  • The higher level of management is called administration. On the other hand, the middle and lower levels of administration are called management.
  • Administration sets the objectives of the organization whereas management tries to achieve the objectives.
  • Administration sets plans and policies while management on the other hand tries to implement the plans made.
  • Administration involves more mental labor (thinking work) than physical labor whereas management requires both physical and mental labor.
Siam Ahmed
Siam Ahmed is a student at Department of Economics, University of Barishal.

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