Wednesday, July 10, 2024

The capital Dhaka is gradually becoming uninhabitable?

Our beloved city, Dhaka, cannot be left behind. Can't find a place in the list of world's un-busable cities or cities of misery. We no longer want to go through each day burdened with nightmares and fears of impending danger. A lot of possibilities and beauty are waiting for us. We do not expect our beloved capital Dhaka city to be considered a city of nightmare or suffering. We wholeheartedly wish to be recognized worldwide as a city of excellent livable, comfortable living, quiet and compact international standards.

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In Bangladesh, more than 45 percent of the total population will live in cities within the next 7 years. By that time, the population of the country will be 184 million. Accordingly, by 2030, more than 83.9 million people will live in cities. These data have been highlighted in a research report entitled ‘Bangladesh Population: Past, Present and Future’, based on data from the World Bank’s annual report on ‘World Development Index’. According to the study, despite the rapid urbanization in the country, the cities are not ready to accommodate the huge population. Cities are lagging behind in various services including housing, education, health, communication.

In this situation, it will be difficult to face future challenges. Curbing population growth with urbanization, expansion of family planning programs, The issues involved are reducing unemployment and fertility rates. It is also necessary to exploit the dividend of the working population. But it is not happening properly in Bangladesh. The study highlights the population dynamics of Bangladesh, urbanization, average life expectancy, male-female ratio, working population dividend, elderly population, fertility rate, infant and female mortality. What will be the future situation in terms of these data, That also came out in the research. Bangladesh is now the eighth largest country in the world in terms of population. The population of the country is 16 crore 98 lakh as per the final census and household census of Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics last year. The report was published on February 6. Bangladesh will be the tenth largest country in 2050 in terms of population.

Even after reducing the population growth rate, the country’s population will be 204 million at that time. In 1974, the population growth rate in the country was 2.64. In 2022, this rate has come down to 1.22 percent. And after 2030 this rate will be 0.8 percent and 0.3 percent in 2050. Even though the population growth rate is low, the current population and overcrowding are major problems for small Bangladesh. The country’s population density is now 1,119 people per square kilometer. In 2050 the density will be 1 thousand 566 people. Dhaka has the highest population density as a division. 2 thousand 156 people live in this section per square kilometer. After that, Mymensingh. 1 thousand 146 people live in this section. As a city, most people live in Dhaka. About 27 percent of the country’s total population lives in Dhaka. Next is Chittagong, where more than 20 percent of people live. The number of women is increasing compared to men. This trend will continue in the future. If this gender ratio were to decrease further, multiple demographic effects could be seen. It will be seen in the village as well as in the city.

Dhaka city
Dhaka

People are living in cities in the country. According to the preliminary report of the latest census, at present 31.51 percent of the total population of the country lives in cities. In 2050, 58.4 percent of the country’s total population will be urban dwellers. In 1974, the proportion of people living in cities was only 9 percent of the total population. The biggest pressure of urbanization is on Dhaka. Dhaka is now the ninth largest city in the world in terms of population. According to the latest data from the United Nations Population Division, Dhaka will be ranked third by 2030. By this time, Dhaka will overtake Brazil’s Sao Paulo and India’s Mumbai. Only Dhaka is being prioritized in the urbanization plan. Outside Dhaka there are district and upazila cities and the market-oriented Mofswal city.

Creating opportunities for urban living, financing, urban poverty, controlling the number of poor people and employment of people – these are the conditions of urbanization. These aspects are not given attention. In this era of rapid urbanization ‘my village, The government is implementing the ‘Amar Shahr’ project. The capital Dhaka was developed unplanned. The situation of the cities under implementation under this project will not be the same? Just as our capital is not ready to take the pressure of increased population, the same is true of the outer cities. If there is a new city, what will happen there, the current situation tells. Local Government, Ministry of Rural Development and Cooperatives is implementing the project ‘My Village, My Town’. How planned are these cities being implemented? We are not denying the fact that Dhaka and other cities have not been developed in a well-planned manner. My City’ project is being implemented by the Local Government, Ministry of Rural Development and Cooperatives. How planned are these cities being implemented? We are not denying the fact that Dhaka and other cities have not been developed in a well-planned manner. My City’ project is being implemented by the Local Government, Ministry of Rural Development and Cooperatives. How planned are these cities being implemented? We are not denying the fact that Dhaka and other cities have not been developed in a well-planned manner.

What will happen if there is a big earthquake in Dhaka? Even if I want to shake such evil thoughts from my head, why can’t I? A fictional image of that terrible situation chased back again and again. If there is a major earthquake in Dhaka, as many people will die buried under the rubble, several times more will die from fire and electrocution. Gas lines will explode after an earthquake. The whole city will burn in that fire. Water from groundwater and surrounding river reservoirs will cause flooding in the city. The water will become electrified when it comes in contact with the wires of the downed power poles. In the case of a major earthquake, rescuers will not be found in the devastated Dhaka city. There are also doubts about the existence of the fire service, which plays a key role in rescue operations. In the capital city of Dhaka, we are spending day and night with such fear in our chest. As the size of the capital Dhaka is increasing day by day, The population is also increasing. Dhaka is becoming uninhabitable under the pressure of additional people.

The people of the city who are suffering from various crises are getting desperate. Traffic congestion, water gas electricity crisis, drug invasion, robbery, extortion, mosquito infestation, etc. are living with the daily problems. The upper class, the middle class, the lower class, the poor, the slum dwellers all have to live in this city with a kind of unrest, dissatisfaction, unrest and dissatisfaction. Despite knowing about so many problems, crisis, discomfort, instability and uncertainty, countless men and women are leaving the village and stepping into Dhaka city every day. Now it cannot be said that the people of the village are moving to the city due to poverty. Despite having affluence, nowadays many people have left the village or poor city and moved to Dhaka in the hope of a better and better quality of life. Although the villages are more developed than before, the social structure has not changed as expected. Village politics has now taken on a more sinister form. Loss of life is happening. A reign of terror has been established. In the rural social life, many people are moving to the city because of the insecurity, renting houses and bringing their families. Some people are moving towards the city considering the importance of higher education for their children. Everyone admits that Dhaka, the capital, has turned into a sprawling city to deal with the pressure of overpopulation.

The people of Dhaka were very uncomfortable for quite some time due to the scorching heat. But at that time the feeling of heat was less in green areas around Dhaka. Researchers say that the difference between the feeling of heat outside the city and Dhaka is based on the thermal island (heat island). A large part of Dhaka’s main residential and commercial area has become a tropical island. As a result, there is a difference in the heat of the capital with the natural environment rich areas just outside Dhaka. This difference in surface temperature is a maximum of 7 degrees Celsius. In a study published last year in Springer’s Nature’s Theoretical and Applied Climatology journal, these data on the effects of the tropical island in Dhaka city have emerged. The study titled ‘Changes in urbanization and effect of thermal islands in Dhaka city’ states that the day-night surface temperature difference between the hottest part of Dhaka and the coldest part outside the city is 7 and 5 degrees Celsius respectively. The thing is, While the temperature is 30 degrees Celsius in Savar or Manikganj near Dhaka, the surface temperature in Tejgaon-Farmgate area of ​​the capital is 37 degrees Celsius. Again, the surface temperature difference can be seen inside Dhaka. For example, during the hottest part of the day, the temperature in the Mirpur Zoo and Botanical Garden area is 5 degrees Celsius lower than in Gulshan.

The temperature in Dhaka city has been increasing rapidly for the past few years. At least by planting trees on city sidewalks and rooftops and reclaiming wetlands that are becoming landfills, temperatures can be reduced by a few degrees. A large part of Dhaka has become a tropical island. Trees should be planted on sidewalks and open spaces in these areas. A garden should be done on the roof of the house. Apart from this, wetlands should be created in the city. Tejgaon, Farmgate, Karwan Bazar, Paltan, Motijheel, Gulshan, Banani, Rampura, Bansree, Madani Avenue have become the hottest areas (heat island) of Dhaka. After that there are Uttara, Mirpur, Sheorapara. The study shows that between 2001 and 2017, the surface area of ​​Dhaka city has expanded by 25.33 percent. During the same period the population increased by 76.65 percent.

The expansion of the surface area of ​​Dhaka means, Urban green spaces and wetlands have decreased. People and settlements have increased in the city. In just over a century and a half, the average temperature in some areas of Dhaka has increased by 3 degrees Celsius compared to the city limits due to unplanned urbanization along with population growth. Especially in March, April and May; In other words, the amount of heat in Dhaka is the highest during summer. According to the study, the largest expansion of Dhaka city took place between 2007 and 2008. During this period, the urban area increased by 6.1 percent. In 2001, 9 thousand 481 people lived in every square kilometer of Dhaka. In 2017, it increased to about 13 thousand. The largest expansion of Dhaka city took place between 2007 and 2008. During this period, the urban area increased by 6.1 percent. In 2001, 9 thousand 481 people lived in every square kilometer of Dhaka. In 2017, it increased to about 13 thousand. The largest expansion of Dhaka city took place between 2007 and 2008. During this period, the urban area increased by 6.1 percent. In 2001, 9 thousand 481 people lived in every square kilometer of Dhaka. In 2017, it increased to about 13 thousand.

In the meantime, Dhaka North City Corporation has taken initiatives to reduce the effect of thermal island in Dhaka city. They will plant 2 lakh trees in the next 2 years to control the temperature of Dhaka. With the help of the US Rockefeller Foundation and Dhaka University, they have appointed an officer to reduce the temperature in the city. Dhaka North City Corporation hopes that with everyone’s cooperation the temperature in the city can be reduced. According to the observations of the Meteorological Department, there were 25 days of fire in Dhaka in the first 29 days of April this year. The temperature of Dhaka has always been found to be 2 to 4 degrees Celsius higher than the surrounding districts. Bangladesh University of Engineering (BUET) Department of Architecture has conducted a study on the temperature of Dhaka in April this year. 

Preliminary results of the study showed that temperatures in most parts of the city ranged from 40 to 42 degrees Celsius almost throughout April; In other words, there has been a severe heatwave in Dhaka throughout April. Due to the extreme heat wave, the areas of Dhaka which are hot, there is also a risk of fire. Unplanned urbanization has taken place in Dhaka city. Green-swamps are almost depleted. Almost the entire city has turned into a tropical island. As a result, an intolerable environment has been created here, which is very uncomfortable and unhealthy for the residents of the city. Even the air in the city is heating up. In this situation, if greening is not done, the condition of Dhaka city will further deteriorate.

Our beloved city, Dhaka, cannot be left behind. Can’t find a place in the list of world’s un-busable cities or cities of misery. We no longer want to go through each day burdened with nightmares and fears of impending danger. A lot of possibilities and beauty are waiting for us. We do not expect our beloved capital Dhaka city to be considered a city of nightmare or suffering. We wholeheartedly wish to be recognized worldwide as a city of excellent livable, comfortable living, quiet and compact international standards.

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