Monday, December 11, 2023

Permanent Residency and Citizenship: Definitions, Eligibility, Rights and Privileges, Obligations, Differences, Cancelation, and More

Permanent Residency Vs Citizenship: Differences between permanent residency and citizenship are significant and can have a major impact on an individual's legal status, rights, and obligations.

For all latest articles, follow on Google News

Permanent residency and citizenship are two of the most common ways to achieve legal status in a foreign country. However, despite being related, the two terms have different legal meanings, rights, and responsibilities. Understanding these differences is crucial for those looking to immigrate to a new country. This article will provide an overview of the key differences between permanent residency and citizenship, and the advantages and disadvantages of each.

Definition and Meaning

Permanent residency refers to a legal status that allows an individual to live and work in a foreign country without the need for a visa. It is a step towards citizenship, but it does not grant citizenship.

Citizenship is the status of being a legal member of a country, with all the rights and obligations that come with it.

Example: An individual who holds permanent residency in Canada can live and work in the country without any restrictions, but cannot vote or run for office. A Canadian citizen, on the other hand, has the right to vote and run for office, among other privileges.


The eligibility requirements for permanent residency and citizenship differ significantly. Permanent residency typically requires a valid job offer, a family sponsorship, or eligibility through a government program. Citizenship, on the other hand, requires that the individual have been a permanent resident for a certain number of years and meet specific language, residency, and knowledge requirements.

Example: In the United States, a person can become a permanent resident through employment-based immigration, family-based immigration, or as a refugee or asylum seeker. To become a citizen, the person must have been a permanent resident for at least five years, be able to speak and read English, pass a civics test, and have good moral character.

Rights and Privileges

Permanent residency and citizenship come with different sets of rights and privileges. Permanent residents have the right to live and work in the country, but do not have access to some public benefits such as voting, running for office, or receiving certain government benefits. Citizenship, on the other hand, comes with all the rights and privileges of permanent residency plus the right to vote, run for office, and access all public benefits.

Example: In Australia, permanent residents are entitled to work and live in the country, enroll in Medicare, and have access to education and financial services. However, only citizens have the right to vote in elections, work in the public sector, and receive government scholarships.


Both permanent residents and citizens have certain obligations they must meet. Permanent residents are required to obey the laws of the country and maintain their status by renewing their visa or permit. Citizens have additional responsibilities, including serving on a jury, paying taxes, and possibly serving in the military.

Example: In Singapore, permanent residents are required to renew their re-entry permit every five years to maintain their status. Citizens, on the other hand, are required to serve in the military, pay taxes, and participate in jury duty.

Permanent Residency Titles Across Various Countries

CountryPermanent Residency Title
United States of AmericaPermanent Resident Card (Green Card)
CanadaPermanent Resident Card
AustraliaPermanent Resident Visa
United KingdomIndefinite Leave to Remain (ILR)
New ZealandResident Visa
GermanySettlement Permit (Niederlassungserlaubnis)
FranceCarte de résident
ItalyPermesso di soggiorno
SpainTarjeta de residencia
JapanPermanent Resident Card
South KoreaF-5 Visa (Permanent Resident Visa)
SingaporePermanent Residence (PR) status
Hong KongPermanent Identity Card (PIC)
TaiwanAlien Permanent Resident Certificate (APRC)
MalaysiaPermanent Resident (PR) status
ThailandPermanent Resident Visa (Non-Immigrant Visa Category “PR”)
VietnamPermanent Residence Card (PRC)
IndiaOverseas Citizenship of India (OCI) Card
PhilippinesPermanent Resident Visa (13A Visa)
IndonesiaPermanent Stay Permit (KITAP)

Can a country cancel Permanent Residency (PR) or Citizenship?

Permanent residency and citizenship are not guaranteed and can be revoked under certain circumstances. A country has the power to cancel both permanent residency and citizenship of an individual under certain circumstances. However, the process and grounds for cancellation vary from country to country. The decision to revoke or cancel the status of an individual depends on various factors, such as legal violations, fraudulent activities, security concerns, or other issues.

Cancellation of Permanent Residency

A country may cancel a person’s PR status if they fail to meet the eligibility criteria or violate the conditions of their residency. For instance, if a person is found guilty of a serious crime, such as terrorism, drug trafficking, or espionage, their PR status may be revoked. Also, if a person does not comply with the residency requirements, such as failing to maintain a certain level of employment or not staying in the country for the required period, their PR may be cancelled.

Cancellation of Citizenship

Revocation of citizenship is a more complex and rigorous process. A country may cancel citizenship if the person obtained it through fraudulent means, concealed information or misrepresented facts, or engaged in activities that pose a threat to the country’s security or interests. For instance, a person who commits treason, engages in terrorism or espionage, or participates in an armed conflict against the country may lose their citizenship.

Appealing the Cancellation of PR or Citizenship

If a country cancels someone’s PR or citizenship, they may have the right to appeal the decision depending on the laws and regulations of the country. In some cases, there may be a specific appeal process set out in the immigration or citizenship laws. The person whose status has been cancelled may need to provide evidence and arguments to support their case for an appeal. However, it is important to note that the appeal process can be lengthy and expensive, and there is no guarantee of success.

While a country has the power to cancel PR and citizenship, it is typically done only in extreme circumstances. The grounds and process for cancellation depend on the laws and regulations of the country in question.


In conclusion, the differences between permanent residency and citizenship are significant and can have a major impact on an individual’s legal status, rights, and obligations. Deciding whether to pursue permanent residency or citizenship is a personal decision that depends on various factors, including the individual’s goals, length of stay, and financial situation. Understanding the differences between the two is crucial for those looking to make an informed decision.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Related Articles


Indian Philosopher Swami Vivekananda’s Philosophy of Education

According to scholars, the philosophy of education is the branch of applied philosophy that investigates the nature of education as well as...

What is Smart Bangladesh? Pillers, Challenges, Opportunities, Future of Smart Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a country with a rich history and culture. It is also a country with a bright future. In recent years,...

Digital Bangladesh vs Smart Bangladesh: Understanding the Difference and Implications

The world is rapidly changing, and so are the ways of doing things. Bangladesh has been on a journey of digitization and...

Top Clothing Brands in Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a country with a rich cultural heritage and its fashion industry is a reflection of the same. Over the years,...

Smart Bangladesh: Definition, Building Blocks, Advantages, Challenges of Smart Bangladesh and Road Ahead for It

Smart Bangladesh is a term used by the Bangladesh Government  to mean the power of technology and innovation to improve the quality of life of the country's citizens, enhance economic growth, and protect the environment.

The Significance of Ashoka Chakra in Indian Culture

Ashoka Chakra is an ancient Indian symbol that is widely recognized as the national emblem of India. The chakra, which consists of...

Bisht— a symbol of Arab identity

A bisht is a traditional men’s cloak popular in the Arab world, and worn in general for thousands of years. According to...